Mortality Analysis of COVID-19 Confirmed Cases in Pakistan

Mortality Analysis of COVID-19

Authors

  • Ambreen Chaudhry National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Aamer Ikram National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Mirza Amir Baig Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Salman National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Tamkeen Ghafoor Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Zakir Hussain Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Mumtaz Ali Khan National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Jamil Ahmed Ansari National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Asif Syed Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Wasif Javed Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Ehsan Larik Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Mohsan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Naveed Masood Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Zeeshan Iqbal Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Khurram Akram Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37978/tijfs.v4i2.291

Keywords:

Pakistan, Epidemiology, Co-morbidities, Cases Fatality Rates, COVID-19

Abstract

Introduction: COVID-19, a novel disease, appeared in December 2019 in China and rapidly spread across the world. Till the second week of April 2020, high incidence (2.9/100,000) and cases fatality rates (1.7%) were observed in Pakistan. This study was conducted to determine the temporal and spatial distribution of the first 100 deaths attributed to COVID-19 in Pakistan and their associated demographic factors.

Method: A record review of the first 100 deaths reported among RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 cases was conducted. Demographic, epidemiological, and risk factors information was obtained associated comorbidities and clinical signs and symptoms were recorded and frequencies were determined.

Results: A total of 100 mortalities with an overall case fatality rate of 1.67% (CFR) were analyzed. The median age of patients was 64.5 years (IQR: 54-70) with 75% (n=75) males. Among all deaths reported, 71 (71%) cases had one or more documented comorbidities at the time of diagnosis.  The most frequently reported co-morbidities were: hypertension (67%), followed by Diabetes Mellitus (45%) and Ischemic Heart Diseases (27%). The most frequent presenting symptoms were shortness of breath (87%) and fever (79%). The median duration of illness was eight days (IQR: 4-11 days), the median delay reaching hospital to seek health care was three days (IQR: 0-6 days) while the median duration of hospital stay was also three days (IQR: 1-7 days). Among all, 62% had no history of international travel. The most affected age group was 60-69 years while no death reported in the age group below 20 years.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Siddell SG, Walker PJ, Lefkowitz EJ, Mushegian AR, Dutilh BE, Harrach B, et al. Binomial nomenclature for virus species: a

consultation. Arch Virol. 2020;165(2):519–25.

COVID-19 Map - Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. Available from: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html

Hu D, Zhu C, Ai L, He T, Wang Y, Ye F, et al. Genomic characterization and infectivity of a novel SARS-like coronavirus in

Chinese bats. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018;7(1):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0155-5

Wilson N, Kvalsvig A, Barnard LT, Baker MG. Case-Fatality Risk Estimates for COVID-19 Calculated by Using a Lag Time for

Fatality. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(6). 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00

Chughtai A, Malik A. Is Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) case fatality ratio underestimated? Glob Biosecurity. 2020;1(3).

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus–

Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382:1199-1207. https://doi.org/ 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316

Zou L, Ruan F, Huang M, Liang L, Huang H, Hong Z, et al. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 1177–9. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001737

Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, Tian F, Jin DY, Chen L, et al. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. 2020;

(14):1406-1407. doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2565.

MacIntyre CR. Global spread of COVID-19 and pandemic potential. Glob Biosecurity. 2020;1(3).

Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID19). Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2020; 87: 281–6.

Sun J, He WT, Wang L, Lai A, Ji X, Zhai X, et al. COVID-19: Epidemiology, Evolution, and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives.

Trends in Molecular Medicine. Elsevier Ltd; 2020.

Coronavirus Mortality Rate (COVID-19) - Worldometer. Available from:

https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/coronavirus-death-rate/

COVID-19 Health Advisory Platform by Ministry of National Health Services Regulations and Coordination. Available from: http://covid.gov.pk/

Du Z, Wang L, Cauchemez S, Xu X, Wang X, Cowling BJ, et al. Risk for Transportation of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease from Wuhan to Other Cities in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(5).

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel

coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507–13.

Lai C-C, Shih T-P, Ko W-C, Tang H-J, Hsueh P-R. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and

coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;105924.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497–506.

Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Leung GM, Hedley AJ, Fraser C, Riley S, et al. Epidemiological determinants of spread of causal agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. Lancet. 2003 May 24;361(9371):1761–6.

Published

2020-09-04

How to Cite

Chaudhry, A. ., Ikram, A., Baig, M. A., Salman, M., Ghafoor, T., Hussain, Z., Khan, M. A., Ansari, J. A., Syed, A., Javed, W. ., Larik, E., Mohsan, M., Masood, N., Iqbal, Z., & Akram, K. (2020). Mortality Analysis of COVID-19 Confirmed Cases in Pakistan: Mortality Analysis of COVID-19. The International Journal of Frontier Sciences, 4(2), 81-84. https://doi.org/10.37978/tijfs.v4i2.291

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)