A critical analysis of individual patient factors in gaining access to healthcare

Access to Healthcare

Authors

  • Muhammad Hassan Naveed King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ghulam Mustafa Asim King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Mohid Tahir King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37978/tijfs.v5i1.323

Keywords:

Patient Satisfaction, Tertiary Healthcare, Race factors, Prejudice

Abstract

Background: Pakistan is one of the largest host of refugees. People in Pakistan have bad access to healthcare not only due to bad facilities but also due to discrimination based on their personal characteristics and possessions. The behavior not only damages the dignity of the people being targeted but also creates hindrances in further seeking professional medical help and follow-ups thus deteriorating the health status of the community as a whole. Health providers possess a moral commitment to encourage dignity and treat their patients without any kind of discrimination in their behavior. Patient experiences of discrimination result in delay in seeking healthcare, they do not stick to advice of professionals and ultimately poor health. The objective of this study is to identify sources of discrimination and its effects on patients' health status and their level of satisfaction.

Methods: This descriptive study took place in Outdoor Patient Department, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. 170 patients were selected from all the patients coming to OPD with equal male to female ratio. Each patient was given a questionnaire containing relevant questions to know whether they faced any sort of discriminatory behavior or not.

Results: 66% females and 49% males of the study sample experienced discrimination at some stage of their hospital visit.

Conclusion: Our study concluded that females experienced more discrimination than males. Therefore, gender is the most important factor when it comes to discriminatory experiences. Moreover, people with the higher income had fewer incidents of discrimination than their counterparts.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Bird ST, Bogart LM, Perceived race based and socioeconomic status (SES)baseddiscrimination in health care providers. Ethnicity& Disease 2001;11(3):554-63.

Muller A.Health for all? Sexual orientation, Gender, Identity and implementation of Right to access to Health care in South Health and human rights.2016Dec; 18(2):195.

Noureen. Challenges in the Healthcare Systems of Pakistan. Anatomy PhysiolBiochemInt J. 2017; 1(4): 555567.

DOI: 10.19080/APBIJ.2016.01.555567.

Baillie, L. and Matiti, M. (2013) Dignity, equality and diversity: an exploration of how discriminatory behaviour of healthcare workers affects patient dignity. Diversity and Equality in Health and Care, 10 (1). pp. 5-12. ISSN 2049-5471).

Hudelson P, Kolly V, Perneger T. Patients' perceptions of discrimination during hospitalization. Health Expect. 2010;13(1):24-32. doi:10.1111/j.1369-7625.2009.00577.x

Mangrio, E., SjögrenForss, K. Refugees’ experiences of healthcare in the host country: a scoping review. BMC Health Serv Res 17, 814 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2731-0

Burgess DJ, Ding Y, Hargreaves M, van Ryn M, Phelan S. The association between perceived discrimination and underutilization of needed medical and mental health care in a multi-ethnic community sample. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008;19(3):894-911. doi:10.1353/hpu.0.0063

Matiti MR. Patient dignity in nursing: a phenomenological study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Huddersfield).

Abramson, C., Hashemi, M., & Sánchez-Jankowski, M. (2015). Perceived discrimination in U.S. healthcare: Charting the effects of key social characteristics within and across racial groups. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2, 615-621. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.07.006

Ali SM. Gender and health care utilisation in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review. 2000 Jan 9;39(3):pp-213.

WHO. Country cooperation strategy for WHO and Pakistan 2011-2017,Document WHO-EM/PME/001/E/04.13

Gazard B, Frissa S, Nellums L, Hotopf M, Hatch SL. Challenges in researching migration status, health and health service use: an intersectional analysis of a South London community. Ethn Health. 2015;20(6):564-593. doi:10.1080/13557858.2014.961410

Goodwin L, Gazard B, Aschan L, MacCrimmon S, Hotopf M, Hatch SL. Taking an intersectional approach to define latent classes of socioeconomic status, ethnicity and migration status for psychiatric epidemiological research. EpidemiolPsychiatr Sci. 2018;27(6):589-600. doi:10.1017/S2045796017000142

GrollmanEA.Multiple disadvantaged statuses and health the role of multiple forms of discrimination.J Health Soc Behav.2014;55(1):3-19

Cairney J, Veldhuizen S, Vigod S, Streiner DL, Wade TJ, Kurdyak P. Exploring the social determinants of mental health service use using intersectionality theory and CART analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014;68(2):145-150. doi:10.1136/jech-2013-203120

Durbin A, Moineddin R, Lin E, et alExamining the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and mental health service use of immigrants in Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional studyBMJ Open 2015;5:e006690. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006690

CRISPIN JENKINSON, ANGELA COULTER, STEPHEN BRUSTER, The Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire: development and validation using data from in-patient surveys in five countries, International Journal for Quality in Health Care, Volume 14, Issue 5, October 2002, Pages 353–358, https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/14.5.353

Weech-Maldonado R, Hall A, Bryant T, Jenkins KA, Elliott MN. The relationship between perceived discrimination and patient experiences with health care. Med Care. 2012;50(9 Suppl 2):S62-S68. doi:10.1097/MLR.0b013e31825fb235

Pizzarossa LB, Perehudoff K. Global survey of national constitutions: Mapping constitutional commitments to sexual and reproductive health and rights. Health and human rights. 2017 Dec;19(2):279. PMID : 29302182

Fang, M.L., Sixsmith, J., Lawthom, R. et al. Experiencing ‘pathologized presence and normalized absence’; understanding health related experiences and access to health care among Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. BMC Public Health 15, 923 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2279-z

Minas, H., Zamzam, R., Midin, M. et al. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes. BMC Public Health 11, 317 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-317

Feyissa, G.T., Abebe, L., Girma, E. et al. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 12, 522 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-522

Riggs, D.W., Coleman, K. & Due, C. Healthcare experiences of gender diverse Australians: a mixed-methods, self-report survey. BMC Public Health 14, 230 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-230

Bratter JL, Gorman BK. Is discrimination an equal opportunity risk?: racial experiences, socioeconomic status, and health status among black and white adults. J Health SocBehav. 2011;52(3):365-382. doi:10.1177/0022146511405336

Ross PT, Lypson ML, Kumagai AK. Using illness narratives to explore African American perspectives of racial discrimination in health care. Journal of Black Studies. 2012 Jul;43(5):520-44.

Hausmann LR, Hannon MJ, Kresevic DM, Hanusa BH, Kwoh CK, Ibrahim SA. Impact of perceived discrimination in healthcare on patient-provider communication. Med Care. 2011;49(7):626-633. doi:10.1097/MLR.0b013e318215d93c

Chandler D. The underutilization of health services in the Black community: An examination of causes and effects. Journal of Black Studies. 2010 May;40(5):915-31.

Hausmann LR, Jeong K, Bost JE, Ibrahim SA. Perceived discrimination in health care and health status in a racially diverse sample. Med Care. 2008;46(9):905-914. doi:10.1097/MLR.0b013e3181792562

Betancourt JR, Green AR, Carrillo JE, Ananeh-Firempong O 2nd. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Rep. 2003;118(4):293-302. doi:10.1093/phr/118.4.293

Zere E, McIntyre D. Equity in self-reported adult illness and use of health service in South Africa: inter-temporal comparison. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 2003 Sep 1:205-15.

Published

2020-12-20

How to Cite

Naveed, M. H. ., Asim, G. M. ., & Tahir, M. M. (2020). A critical analysis of individual patient factors in gaining access to healthcare: Access to Healthcare. The International Journal of Frontier Sciences, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.37978/tijfs.v5i1.323