Determination of Blood Flow in Superficial Arteries of Human Face using Doppler Ultrasonography in Young Adults

Blood Flow in Superficial Arteries


  • Nedal Iqbal Department of Oral Biology, Fatima Memorial Hospital-College of Medicine & Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Khubaib Shahid Department of Radiology, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Imtiaz Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Fatima Memorial Hospital-College of Medicine & Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Faiqua Yasser Department of Oral Pathology, Institute of Dentistry, CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ayesha Ashraf Children’s Hospital & The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Zain ul Abdin Department of Pathology, Sahara Medical College, Narowal, Pakistan



human face, Doppler Ultrasonography, superficial arteries, blood flow


Background: Human face is highly vascular region and vascularity to the skin and other organs is an important indicator of health and disease. Change in blood flow is affected by aging, diabetes, high blood triglycerides, cigarette smoking etc. With so many factors that can alter blood flow in the skin, normal blood flow is important to know for comparison to diseased state. Blood flow in superficial arteries of face has not yet been described, therefore this study was designed to establish baseline blood flow values in arteries of face.

Materials and Methods: Blood flow of right and left side was assessed at level of facial and infraorbital artery. Categorical variables were presented in form of frequency and percentages was done by using Mann-Whitney U. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test was used to compare left and right facial and infra orbital arteries.

Results: Peak systolic velocity of right and left facial artery had a significant difference having right side mean of 67.02±12.48 and left side mean as 72.67±11.69. Facial artery diameter of right and left side also had significant difference with mean of 0.14±0.02 and 0.15±0.02 respectively.

Conclusion: No difference was found between vascularity in male & female and left or right side. The study might be useful to establish normal baseline values of various parameters on both sides of face in male and female adults. This study may become important reference for future studies measuring blood flow and even progression of vascular diseases may be assessed by indexes developed on the basis of these studies.


Download data is not yet available.


Von Arx T, Tamura K, Yukiya O, Lozanoff S: The Face - A Vascular Perspective. A literature review. Swiss Dent J. 2018 May, 14:382-392. 10.4103/bc.bc_20_19. eCollection

Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F. Becker: Regulation of blood flow and volume exchange across the microcirculation. Critical Care. volume, 1186:13054-016.

Rafique MU, Rubnawaz Q, Khan AH, et al.: Vascular Reactivity during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients at. Punjab Institute of Cardiology &Shalamar Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. The International Journal of Frontier Sciences, 1, 12-18. 2017, 1:

Marina B, Raul R, Neto T, Arthur C, Eduardo M , Emiko S and Claudio F: Ultrasound analysis of mental artery flow in elderly patients: a case-control study. DentomaxillofacRadiol. 2015 Dec 44,

Iqbal S, Aslam A, Ahmed S, et al.: Spectrum of Mandibular Fractures in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Karachi. The. International Journal of Frontier Sciences, 4. 2020, 4:

AlirezaMohammadkarim, ManijheMokhtari-Dizaji, Ali Kazemian, HazhirSaberi: Hemodynamic analysis of radiation-induced damage in common carotid arteries by using Color Doppler ultrasonography. Ultrasonography. 2018 Jan, 37:43-49.

Jerrold S: Resting Blood Flow in the Skin: Does It Exist, and What Is the Influence of Temperature, Aging, and Diabetes?. J Diabetes Sci Technology. 2012 May, 6:674-684.

Tania M, Yakup T, Selman D: Facial anatomy. Clinics in Dermatology. 2014, 32:14-32.

Kim HS, Lee KL, Gil YC, Hu KS, Tansatit T, Kim HJ: Topographic Anatomy of the Infraorbital Artery and Its Clinical Implications for Nasolabial Fold Augmentation. PlastReconstr Surg. 2018 Sep, 42:273-280. 10.1097/PRS.0000000000004704

Neil S Norton: Netter’s Head & Neck Anatomy for dentistry. Elsevier, 2017.

Yong-Wook C: Use of ultrasound Doppler to determine tooth vitality in a discolored tooth after traumatic injury: its prospects and limitations. Restor Dent Endod. 2014:39.

Nagase T, Kobayashi S, Sekiya S, Ohmori K: Anatomic evaluation of facial artery and vein using color Doppler ultrasonography. Ann Plast. Surg. 1997, 39:64-7.

Zhai YP, Ariji Y, Gotoh M, Kurita K, Natsume N, Ma XC and Ariji E: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral RadiolEndod. 2002 Feb, 93:195-201.

Jacobovicz J, Tolazzi AR, Timi JR: Doppler ultrasound evaluation of facial transverse and infraorbital arteries: inflence of smoking and aging process. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2007, 3:526-31. 10.1007/s00266-006-0171-z

Tucunduva MJ, Tucunduva-Neto R, Mauro Saieg, Andre-LC, de Freitas C: Vascular mapping of the face: B-mode and doppler ultrasonography study. 10.4317%2Fmedoral.20754

Ercikti N, Apaydin N, Kirici Y: Location of the infraorbital foramen with reference to soft tissue landmarks. SurgRadiol Anat. 2017, 39:11-15. 10.1007/s00276-016-1683-0




How to Cite

Iqbal, N. ., Shahid, K. ., Imtiaz, M., Yasser, F., Ashraf, A., & Abdin, M. Z. ul . (2021). Determination of Blood Flow in Superficial Arteries of Human Face using Doppler Ultrasonography in Young Adults: Blood Flow in Superficial Arteries. The International Journal of Frontier Sciences, 5(1).