Factors Affecting Uptake of Routine Immunization Among Children Age 12-23 Months in District Rahimyar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan
Keywords:Immunization, Vaccination, mortality under 5, Vaccination coverage, Immunization coverage, Barriers to immunization, Factors affecting re-uptake of immunization coverage
Background: Vaccination prevents significant amount of childhood deaths around the globe. Pakistan is vaccinating children through EPI since 1978 against 10 diseases. Pakistan is facing difficulties in achieving goal of vaccine coverage due to multiple factors. Researches reveal that human resource, poor equipment and training of health care personnel are important for successful immunization programme. Current study was conducted to assess the routine immunization coverage among children of age 12-23 months in Rahimyar Khan district, Punjab, Pakistan and to identify factors that affect uptake of routine immunization in Rahimyar Khan district, Punjab, Pakistan.
Materials and Methods: It was a cross sectional study which was conducted in Rahimyar Khan from Oct 2016-Jan 2017. A total of 378 mothers having children of age 12-23 months were interviewed through structured questionnaire. Total 12 (six rural and six urban) Union Councils of district Rahimyar Khan were selected through random sampling. For household selection, random area of union council was selected, and bottle was rotated to select first house, then every Nth (5th) house were approached for sample until required sample size was obtained. Data was analysed by SPSS 22.0. Chi Square test was used to explore association between independent variables and outcome variable.
Results: A total of 378 mothers of children age 12-23 months were interviewed. About 66.10% children were found fully immunized. Measles- II vaccine coverage was 60.8% while 78% were immunized against BCG vaccines. Mother’s educational status, occupation and father’s educational status, occupations were observed to the significantly affect the immunization coverage of children. The monthly household income, age of children and area of residence also significantly affected the immunization coverage of children. Other factors such as the child gender, ethnicity, religion, type of family and number of children did not significantly affect the immunization coverage. Majority of respondents’ perception were place of delivery and community health workers play role to enhance the vaccination coverage.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the majority (66.10%) of children were completely immunized within recommended time. The reasons of vaccine refusal and lower immunization coverage areas can be countered by overcoming the factors such as place of delivery, theory of knowledge, general public motivation and well-planned infrastructure at National and local level.